Torrione Testaforte

The city statutes of 1330 mention a canton Testafortis, probably a fortified place near the Porta Pisana (or San Bartolomeo) and the Firmafede Fortress, replaced at the end of the 15th century by the Medici Citadel. The present cylindrical structure was built in 1513 by podestà Luchino Stella, under whose rule the two towers near the Porta Càleri (later Parma). Following the loss of their original defensive function, the towers were, as of the second half of the 19th century, sold to private owners and used as dwellings. On the Testaforte Tower, the Carpena family erected their residence, following the forms of the architectural revival fashionable at the time.